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PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (PMIS)


Glossary

Contents

 

Pavement Condition Summary

PMS

An acronym for Pavement Management System

NOSAn acronym for Network Optimization System
Road Cat.The PMS stratifies the highway network into twenty-three road categories by classification, pavement type, traffic, and width.
Class. I/OI: for interstate. O: for all others.
Pvmt Type
  • PCCP Portland cement concrete pavement.
  • COMP Composite pavement, PCC pavement or brick that has been overlaid with asphaltic concrete.
  • FDBIT Full design bituminous pavement, designed and constructed to carry expected traffic.
  • PDBIT Partial design bituminous pavement, not designed or constructed to carry expected traffic (Par Value less than 20).
Roadway WidthWidth of roadway including any paved shoulders.
Traffic RangeThese are design lane EAL (Equivalent Axle Loads). The values are expressed in equivalent 18 kip axle loads which take into account axle weight and type and the load carrying capacity of the pavement.
Total MilesTotal roadway miles in each road category. "Roadway" miles count divided facilities twice.
Miles In Level 1Total roadway miles that were smooth and exhibited few if any surface defects at the time of the survey. Pavement segments in this category do not require corrective action, however it may be appropriate to perform preventative maintenance actions to prolong this good condition.
Miles In Level 2Total roadway miles that appeared to require at least routine maintenance to address roughness or to correct moderate surface defects observed at the time of the survey.
Miles In Level 3Total roadway miles that require a rehabilitative action beyond routine maintenance at the time of the survey.

 

Distress Data, Distress State And Performance Level

PMS SEG.ID.NO.PMS segment identification number. Each of the segments in the network has a unique ID number. It contains county number, route classification letter, route number, route suffix number, segment integer logpoints (mileposts), and lane number.
CO.The number (1-105) of the county the PMS segment is in. A table of county names, numbers, and abbreviations is inside the back cover.
ROUTE
  • Route classification letters are "I", "U" and "K".
  • Route number is the assigned number of the route.
  • Route suffix numbers are:
    0: no suffix5: Alternate
    1: North6: Spur
    2: East7: Connector
    3: South8: Business
    4: West9: Kansas Turnpike
iLPSegment integer logpoints (mileposts) are created using the format of "99-99" by simple truncation of the fractional portions of both beginning and ending logpoints (mileposts) of the PMS segment.
LLane numbers are:
  • 0: undivided
  • 1: north lane (west bound)
  • 2: east lane (north bound)
  • 3: south lane (east bound)
  • 4: west lane (south bound)
LOGPOINTCounty logpoint (milepost) normally begins with zero where the route enters a county at the west or south county line or where the route begins inside a county.
Beg.Beginning of segment with reference to county logpoints (mileposts).
EndEnding of segment with reference to county logpoints (mileposts).
Dis StDistress State. Condition of the segment at the time of the survey. This is a three digit number, where each digit represents the level of a certain pavement condition parameter. The level ranges from 1-3 with 1 being the best condition, 3 being the worst. The three digits are defined as:
  • First digit: An indicator of roughness on all pavement types based upon the IRI value calculated from the right wheelpath profile. (see “IRI Notes”)
  • Second digit: An indicator of joint distress on rigid pavements or transverse cracking on flexible pavements.
  • Third digit: Indicator of faulting on rigid pavements or rutting on flexible pavements.
P LPerformance Level. There are three performance levels; 1, 2 & 3.
  1. Denotes segments that are smooth and exhibit few if any surface defects. Pavement segments in this category do not require corrective action, however it may be appropriate to perform preventative maintenance actions to prolong this good condition. Formerly denoted "Good" or "Acceptable" condition.
  2. Denotes segments that appear to require at least routine maintenance to address roughness or to correct moderate surface defects. Formerly denoted "Deteriorating" or "Tolerable" condition.
  3. Denotes segments that appeared to require a rehabilitative action beyond routine maintenance at the time of the survey. Formerly denoted "Deteriorated" or "Unacceptable" condition. For Performance Level details see “Performance Level Notes”.
Pr FYProject Fiscal Year. The fiscal year in which a scheduled project is expected to be let.
RCRoad category. The highway network is separated into 23 categories based on functional class, pavement type, roadway width, and traffic (EAL). For Road Category Details see “Road Category Notes”.
Pv TyPavement Type.
  • PC:Portland cement concrete pavement.
  • CO:Composite pavement, PCC pavement or brick that has been overlaid with asphaltic concrete.
  • FD:Full design bituminous pavement, designed and constructed to carry expected traffic.
  • PD:Partial design bituminous pavement, not designed or constructed to carry expected traffic (Par Value less than 20).
AADTAnnual Average Daily Traffic. (one direction only)
EALDesign Lane Equivalent Axle Loads. Expressed in daily equivalent 18 kip axle loads.
Prof DateThe date of the roughness survey or these special codes:
  • 1/01: roughness and rutting default values assigned due to new construction.
  • 1/02: roughness and rutting based on an average of adjacent segments.
  • 1/03: roughness and rutting based on a subjective rating made during the survey.
ROUGHNESSResults of roughness survey. Pavement roughness was determined using a Mays meter from 1982 through 1992. Then a South Dakota Profilometer equipped with sonic sensors was used from 1993 through 1995. In 1996 the South Dakota Profilometer sensors were converted from sonic to laser devices.
iriL iriR in/miInternational Roughness Index (IRI) roughness in inches per mile calculated from left and right wheelpath profiles collected with a South Dakota profilometer. Roughness levels are based on right wheelpath IRI values for determination of distress states and performance levels. (see “IRI Notes”)
Surv DateThe date of the condition survey or these special codes:
  • 1/01: condition default values asssigned due to new construction.
  • 1/02: condition based on an average of adjacent segments.

 

FLEXIBLE DISTRESS

Beginning in 2013, all pavement condition data except for Joint Distress was collected using an automated system that collects pavement intensity and range images. Intensity images are similar to a picture from a camera where each pixel may represent an area of 2mm x 2mm and a color such as black, white, or many shades of gray. A range image represents the same area, but gives a relative elevation for that pixel to the surrounding pixels. The range image is predominately used by the automated cracking algorthyms to identify cracks in the pavement. The intensity image is used more for identifying sealed cracks.
Rut ValAverage rutting depth (inches). Measured using the range image data across the pavement.
Transverse Cracking ft/mileThe values in this column represent the number of feet of transverse cracks per mile based on the automated measurements. A transverse crack is defined primarily by the orientation. That is, a crack that is +/- 10 degrees perpendicular to the centerline of the road. For purposes of this report, the crack length that was across either wheelpath or between the wheelpaths was included. Thus a single transverse crack would result in 9 feet.
Wheelpath Longitudinal Cracking ft/mileLongitudinal cracks are defined as +/- 10 degrees of parallel to the centerline of the road. The WPLon column only counts the feet per mile of longitudinal cracks which fall in the wheelpaths.
NonWheelpath Longitudinal Cracking ft/mileLongitudinal cracks that are not in the wheelpaths are included in this column.
Wheelpath Pattern Cracking ft/mileCracks that meet neither the Transverse or Longitudinal orientation requirements are called pattern cracks. These cracks are similar to what was previously called fatigue cracks and typically represent load related distress in the wheelpaths. They are listed in feet per mile in the data listing.
For the distresses PRIOR TO 2013: Fatigue Cracking, Transverse Cracking, and Block Cracking, three 100-foot randomly selected test sections are used to determine expected condition for any 100-foot portion of the segment. Rutting is measured over the entire segment. A value of “* * * * * * * * * * ” under the Flexible Distress columns indicates that flexible distress has been rated on previous surveys on this segment but none was encountered on this survey. This condition results when a flexible pavement is reconstructed as PCCP or can occur when a segment contains multiple pavement types.
RtCondition of rutting in wheelpaths, representing data collected by the South Dakota profilometer (on Prof Date) in the two driving lane wheelpaths for the entire segment. This two digit code is a combination of average (first digit) and maximum tenth of a mile within a segment (second digit) rutting severity. Each digit can be:
  1. 0.00"-0.24"
  2. 0.25"-0.50"
  3. 0.51"-1.00" flagged as "Rutting"
  4. >1.00" flagged as "RUTTING"
Fc1 Fc2 Fc3 Fc4 lin.ft{wp}/100fCondition of fatigue cracking in wheelpaths as an average of three test sections. FC1 header denotes code 1 cracking severity, FC2 denotes code 2 cracking severity, and so forth. The values in the columns under the severity codes report the lineal feet of fatigue cracking expected in any 100-foot sample on a two-lane roadway. More than one severity level may be coded per test section, however, the extent must exceed 5’ to be counted. Fatigue Cracking severity codes are:
  • FC1: Hairline alligator cracking, pieces not removable.
  • FC2: Alligator cracking, pieces not removable, cracks spalled.
  • FC3: Alligator cracking, pieces are loose and removable, pavement may pump.
  • FC4: Pavement has shoved forming a ridge of material adjacent to the wheelpath.
T0 T1 T2 T3Condition of transverse cracking as an average of the three 100-foot test sections. The severity codes are:
  • T0: Sealed cracks with no roughness and sealant breaks less than 1 foot per lane.
  • T1: No roughness, 0.25” or wider with no secondary cracking; or any width with secondary cracking less than 4 feet per lane; or any width with a failed seal (1 or more feet per lane).
  • T2: Any width with noticeable roughness due to depression or bump. Also cracks that have greater than 4 feet of secondary cracking but no roughness.
  • T3: Any width with significant roughness due to depression or bump. Secondary cracking will be more severe than Code 2.

Only cracks that are a full lane width are counted (centerline to edge on a two lane road). More than one severity level may be coded per test section. The extent of transverse cracking is reported as a one or two digit number which represents the number of full width cracks expected in any 100-foot sample of the segment, to the nearest 0.1 cracks.

Note:Transverse cracking extent values are displayed without a decimal point, xx instead of x.x, due to space limitations on the printed page.

For example, if during the survey the rater counted two full cracks (say of severity level T1) in the first test section, then one in each of the second and third test sections (same severity level), then the number "13" would appear under the column T1 for that section ( [2+1+1]/3 = 1.3). That value indicates that 1.3 cracks of that severity code could be expected in any 100-foot sample of the segment.When the word "Crack" appears below the T2 and T3 headers the segment was recorded as having only code1, or code0 and code1 transverse cracking severity and thus is a candidate for crack sealing.

BcCondition of block cracking. Block cracking is not coded unless it covers more than 50% of the test section. Block cracking severity codes are:
  1. Block size greater than 4 feet with no secondary cracking.
  2. Block size less than 4 feet with no secondary cracking.
  3. Block size greater than 4 feet with secondary cracking.
  4. Block size less than 4 feet with secondary cracking.
The maximum block size is 12 feet. Construction joints are not counted. Cracking along the wheelpath is not counted as block cracking, rather it is counted as fatigue cracking.

The extent represents the three test sections and is a one digit number. The number shown denotes the code of block cracking exhibited, code 1, 2, 3 or 4. For example, a "3" indicates code 3 block cracking is present in more than 50% of the average section. The worst condition found in the three test sections is used to represent the segment.

 

RIGID DISTRESS

For Joint Distress three 100-foot randomly selected test sections are used to determine expected condition for any 100-foot portion of the segment. Faulting data is collected for the entire segment by the South Dakota Profilometer. A value of “ * * * * * * * *” indicates rigid distress has been rated on previous surveys on this segment but none was encountered on this survey. This is often PCCP that has been overlaid to become composite or a segment that includes multiple pavement types.

 

Faulting

 There are three faulting severity codes:
  • F1: >0.125” and <0.25"
  • F2: 0.25" to 0.5"
  • F3: >0.5"
 With these codes a “Fault Score” is generated by:
Fault Score =[percentage of joints in a segment exhibiting F1 faulting]
 + 2*[percentage of joints in a segment exhibiting F2 faulting]
 + 4*[percentage of joints in a segment exhibiting F3 faulting]
FUsing the Fault Score, the Fault Code (F in the report) is assigned as:
  1. 4 <Fault Score <= 45
  2. 45 <Fault Score <= 100
  3. 100 <Fault Score
F1 F2 F3 %The weighted average percent of code 1,2 and 3 faults per mile based on 352 joints per mile (15’ joint spacing).

 

Joint Distress

J1 J2 J3 J4Condition of joints in the segment as determined from the average of three 100-foot test sections. This is a one digit number indicating the number of distressed joints of a given severity code which can be expected to occur in any 100-foot sample of the segment. Averages between 0.01 and 1.49 were rounded to 1. The severity codes for joint distress are:
  • J1: Noticeable staining and/or minimal cracking at each joint.
  • J2: Staining and/or hariline cracking with minimum spalling.
  • J3: Significant cracking and spalling. Some patching done or necessary.
  • J4: Advanced cracking and severe spalling. Patching deteriorated and 2 to 3 feet wide along joint.
Minimal cracking or spalling is defined as less than 2 feet along the joint length. Significant cracking or spalling is defined as more than 2 feet along the joint length. More than one severity level may be coded per test section. Extent is the number of full width joints in each severity code.

 

IRI Notes

The first digit of the Distress State parameter (See “Dis St” ) is roughness. Roughness is expressed in ranges of the Internation Roughness Index (IRI) as follows:
  • "1" indicates an IRI value of less than 105 inches per mile.
  • "2" indicates an IRI value of 105 to 164 inches per mile.
  • "3" indicates an IRI value of more than 164 inches per mile.
Based on a study of the variability of Mays Ridemeter (MRM) readings, a statistical procedure using the standard deviation of MRM readings was developed to lessen the annual change between distress levels. In order for a distress level to change from one year to the next, an IRI value must exceed the distress level range division by +/- 5 inches per mile. The following table illustrates this rule:
Previous
PL
Current
IRI
New
RL
1<11011110-16421>1643
Previous
PL
Current
IRI
New
RL
2<1001
2100-1692
2>1693
Previous
PL
Current
IRI
New
RL
3<1051
3105-1592
3>1053
Where “RL” is Roughness Level

 

Performance Level Notes

Performance Level (PL) is defined by Distress State and Pavement Type according to the following table:

Performance Levels Assigned to each Distress State
DS CodePCCPCompositeF.D. BitP.D. Bit
111, 1121111
1131112
121, 1221111
1231222
131, 1332222
2111111
2121112
2131122
2211222
2221222
2232222
231-2332222
3112233
312, 3133333
321 - 3233333

331 -333

3333

 

 

Road Category Notes

Road category. The highway network is separated into 23 categories based on functional class, pavement type, roadway width, and traffic (EAL) as illustrated by the following table:

RoadFunctionalPavement TypeRoadway WidthDesing Lane ADL
CategoryClassification Range In
Number Equ. 18kip/day
1InterstatePCCALL0-749
2"""750-9999
3"Composite"0-749
4"""750-9999
5"Full Design Bituminous"0-9999
6OtherPCC"0-87
7"""88-162
8"""163-9999
9"Composite"0-87
10"""88-162
11"""163-9999
12"Full Design Bituminous<32´0-22
13"""23-50
14"""51-9999
15"">32´0-22
16"""23-50
17"""51-9999
18"Partial Design Bituminous<32´0-22
19"""23-50
20"""51-9999
21"">32´0-22
22"""23-50
23"""51-9999


Last Update: Nopvember 13, 2012
By Robert Nichols
Email: RobertN@ksdot.org